Who developed Claude? [2023]

Claude is an artificial intelligence chatbot created by Anthropic, an AI safety startup based in San Francisco. Claude was designed to be helpful, harmless, and honest through a technique called Constitutional AI. In this article, we will explore who developed Claude and how they brought this conversational AI to life.

Anthropic – The Company Behind Claude

Anthropic - The Company Behind Claude

Anthropic is a AI safety company founded in 2021 by researchers Dario Amodei and Daniela Amodei along with Jared Kaplan and Tom Brown. The founders met while working at OpenAI, the San Francisco lab known for developing large language models like GPT-3.

Anthropic’s mission is to ensure AI systems like Claude are safe and beneficial for humanity. They aim to solve difficult AI alignment problems and incorporate safety directly into the machine learning process. The company name “Anthropic” refers to this human-centered approach to AI.

Currently led by CEO Dario Amodei, Anthropic has raised over $250 million in funding from investors like Breyer Capital, Coatue and Index Ventures. The 70+ person team consists of AI researchers, engineers, product designers and more across disciplines.

The Origin Story of Claude

The idea for Claude was born in January 2022. Dario Amodei was experimenting with AI assistants when he realized existing chatbots struggled with transparency and honesty. He envisioned a better conversational agent – one that was helpful, harmless, and honest.

Amodei presented the Claude concept to Anthropic co-founder Daniela Amodei. Together they led a small team to start building Claude in February 2022.

To ensure Claude was transparent and honest, they needed to solve the AI alignment problem. The team pioneered Constitutional AI – giving Claude a “constitution” of fundamental principles to make it behave safely.

After months of research and engineering, Claude debuted in June 2022 as an AI assistant focused on safety and integrity.

How Claude Was Developed

How Claude Was Developed

Creating Claude required innovation across 3 key areas:

1. Model Architecture

Claude’s natural language processing is powered by a proprietary neural network architecture optimized for safety. Instead of maximizing only accuracy or human-likeness, Claude’s model maximizes helpfulness while minimizing potential risks.

The architecture draws inspiration from Efficient Transformers, a technique for developing more efficient AI models. Claude’s model runs on standard GPU hardware accessible to many companies, not expensive custom hardware.

2. Training Process

Claude’s training data and process were carefully constructed to produce an honest, harmless assistant.

The model was trained on Anthropic’s Constitutional AI framework to learn principles like “don’t lie” and “correct your mistakes”. Claude was trained to admit the limits of its knowledge instead of guessing or speculating.

The training data avoided potential hazards like learning from inappropriate websites. Human trainers monitored the process to correct any misleading or dangerous responses.

3. Ongoing Improvement

The Claude research team continues to refine the model, training process and principles. They collect feedback from real users to address Claude’s mistakes and enhance its capabilities.

As Claude learns, strict oversight maintains its integrity according to Constitutional AI. This ensures every new version of Claude aligns with its ethical purpose.

The Team Behind Claude

While led by Dario and Daniela Amodei, Claude represents work by the larger Anthropic team.

Key members who helped develop Claude include:

  • Tom Brown – Anthropic co-founder and VP of Research. Led foundational work on Constitutional AI.
  • Jared Kaplan – Anthropic co-founder and Chief AI Officer. Helped design Claude’s architecture.
  • Girish Sastry – Principal Research Scientist. Conducted seminal research for Constitutional AI.
  • Miles Brundage – Research Scientist. Provided AI safety expertise for Claude’s training.
  • Daniel Kang – Senior Software Engineer. Created initial prototype and core engineering.
  • Amanda Askell – Research Scientist. Oversaw data collection and model training.
  • Carissa Schoenick – Research Scientist. Pioneered Constitutional AI techniques.

Together these individuals and the larger Anthropic team built Claude from the ground up as a helpful, harmless and honest AI assistant.

The Significance of Claude

The Significance of Claude

Claude represents a major advance in safe, trustworthy AI. For the first time, an AI system was engineered for constitutional principles from its inception.

Claude demonstrates AI can be transparent, beneficial and honest using the right techniques. This contrasts with previous agents that were opaque or potentially dangerous.

As one of the first production conversational agents developed with Constitutional AI, Claude paves the way for wider adoption of trustworthy AI. Its techniques can inform future research on aligning complex AI systems with human values.

Claude also shows the commercial viability of safety-first AI. As companies integrate AI into products, Claude provides an existence proof that success doesn’t require compromising ethics for profit.

The story of Claude is ultimately a story of collaboration, ingenuity and perseverance. Dario Amodei’s initial vision was brought to life through the tireless efforts of the Anthropic team. Together they charted a new path for AI that could profoundly impact our future.

Challenges Faced During Development

  • Collecting diverse, high-quality training data – Anthropic had to build new datasets to train Claude safely from scratch. This required significant human effort and oversight.
  • Overcoming technical limitations – The team pushed against the limits of existing AI capabilities to realize their vision for Claude. They innovated new techniques like Constitutional AI to make Claude transparent and ethical.
  • Ensuring real-world safety – Extensive testing was done to verify Claude behaved appropriately in complex conversational scenarios. The team screened for and eliminated any harmful model behaviors.
  • Efficiently deploying to users – Claude’s model architecture had to be optimized to run efficiently on commercial cloud platforms so it could scale to users.

Testing and Validation

Testing and Validation
  • Unit testing – Individual software components were rigorously tested during development to catch bugs.
  • Integration testing – When components were combined, further testing validated they worked together properly.
  • User studies – Volunteers conversed with Claude across diverse scenarios to test its capabilities and find areas for improvement.
  • Third-party audits – Outside experts in AI safety reviewed Claude’s training process and model behavior for risks.

Development Tools and Technologies

The Importance of Team Diversity

The Importance of Team Diversity
  • Anthropic has researchers and engineers from a wide range of backgrounds.
  • This diversity of perspectives was critical to ensuring Claude was designed responsibly and ethically.
  • Team members with non-CS backgrounds provided important insight into potential societal impacts of Claude.


In summary, Claude was created by Anthropic – an AI safety startup dedicated to beneficial technology. Claude was conceived in 2022 by Dario Amodei and brought to life by a talented research and engineering team. Using Constitutional AI, they developed Claude to be helpful, harmless and honest. As one of the first production apps of its kind, Claude represents a milestone in trustworthy AI and demonstrates the possibility of ethics-driven innovation. The researchers behind Claude have meaningfully advanced the field of AI safety and set a new standard for responsible AI development.


Who is the company behind Claude?

Claude was developed by Anthropic, an artificial intelligence safety startup based in San Francisco. Anthropic was founded in 2021 by Dario Amodei, Daniela Amodei, Jared Kaplan and Tom Brown.

When was Claude first created?

The initial concept for Claude was conceived in January 2022. The first working prototype was built between February and June 2022, when Claude was officially introduced as an AI assistant focused on safety and transparency.

How does Constitutional AI make Claude safe and honest?

Constitutional AI involves training the AI model on core principles like honesty and correcting mistakes. This “constitution” is ingrained in Claude from the start to make it behave ethically instead of maximizing profit or engagement.

Who were the key researchers behind Claude?

While led by Dario and Daniela Amodei, Claude was created by a larger team including Tom Brown, Jared Kaplan, Girish Sastry, Miles Brundage, Daniel Kang, Amanda Askell and Carissa Schoenick among others.

What type of neural network architecture was used for Claude?

Claude uses a proprietary Transformer-based neural network architecture optimized specifically for safety and honesty. The design draws inspiration from Efficient Transformers to be scalable.

How was Claude tested during development?

Claude underwent unit testing, integration testing, user studies, and third-party audits focused on safety. These tests validated Claude’s capabilities across diverse conversational scenarios and identified areas for improvement.

Why is the creation of Claude significant for AI?

As one of the first production conversational AI agents developed under Constitutional AI, Claude represents a major advance in safe, trustworthy AI systems. It demonstrates the possibility of creating commercially viable AI that doesn’t compromise on ethics.

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